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# neldermead

Provides several direct search optimization algorithms based on the simplex method.

### SYNOPSIS

newobj = neldermead_new () this = neldermead_destroy (this) this = neldermead_configure (this,key,value) value = neldermead_cget (this,key) value = neldermead_get ( this , key ) this = neldermead_search ( this ) this = neldermead_restart ( this ) [ this , result ] = neldermead_function ( this , x )

### Description

This class provides several direct search optimization algorithms based on the simplex method.

The optimization problem to solve is the minimization of a cost function, with bounds and nonlinear constraints

min f(x) l_i <= x_i <= h_i, i = 1,n g_i(x) >= 0, i = 1,nbineq

where

- n
number of variables

- nbineq
number of inequality constraints

The provided algorithms are direct search algorithms, i.e. algorithms which do not use the derivative of the cost function. They are based on the update of a simplex, which is a set of k>=n+1 vertices, where each vertex is associated with one point and one function value.

The following algorithms are available :

- Spendley, Hext and Himsworth fixed shape simplex method
This algorithm solves an unconstrained optimization problem with a fixed shape simplex made of k=n+1 vertices.

- Nelder and Mead variable shape simplex method
This algorithm solves an unconstrained optimization problem with a variable shape simplex made of k=n+1 vertices.

- Box complex method
This algorithm solves an constrained optimization problem with a variable shape simplex made of an arbitrary k number of vertices (k=2n is recommended by Box).

See the demonstrations, in the Optimization section, for an overview of this component.

See the "Nelder-Mead User's Manual" on Scilab's wiki and on the Scilab forge for further informations.

### Design

The neldermead component is built on top of the optimbase and optimsimplex components.

### Functions

The following functions are available.

- newobj = neldermead_new ()
Creates a new neldermead object.

- newobj
The new object.

- this = neldermead_destroy (this)
Destroy the given object.

- this
The current object.

- this = neldermead_configure (this,key,value)
Configure the current object with the given value for the given key.

- this
The current object.

- key
the key to configure. The following keys are available.

- -verbose
set to 1 to enable verbose logging. (default is 0)

- -verbosetermination
set to 1 to enable verbose termination logging. (default is 0)

- -x0
the initial guess, as a n x 1 column vector, where n is the number of variables.

- -maxfunevals
the maximum number of function evalutations (default is 100). If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "maxfuneval".

- -maxiter
the maximum number of iterations (default is 100). If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "maxiter".

- -tolfunabsolute
the absolute tolerance for the function value (default is 0.0).

- -tolfunrelative
the relative tolerance for the function value (default is %eps).

- -tolfunmethod
the method used for the tolerance on function value in the termination criteria.

The following values are available : %t, %f (default is %f). If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "tolf".

- -tolxabsolute
the absolute tolerance on x (default is 0.0).

- -tolxrelative
the relative tolerance on x (default is %eps).

- -tolxmethod
the method used for the tolerance on x in the termination criteria.

The following values are available : %t, %f (default is %t). If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "tolx".

- -function
the objective function, which computes the value of the cost and the non linear constraints, if any.

See below for the details of the communication between the optimization system and the cost function.

- -costfargument
an additionnal argument, passed to the cost function.

- -outputcommand
a command which is called back for output.

See below for the details of the communication between the optimization system and the output command function.

- -outputcommandarg
an additionnal argument, passed to the output command.

- -numberofvariables
the number of variables to optimize (default is 0).

- -storehistory
set to 1 to enable the history storing (default is 0).

- -boundsmin
the minimum bounds for the parameters, as an array of values (default is empty, i.e. there are no bounds).

- -boundsmax
the maximum bounds for the parameters, as an array of values (default is empty, i.e. there are no bounds).

- -nbineqconst
the number of inequality constraints (default is 0)

- -method
the name of the algorithm to use. The following methods are available :

- "fixed"
the Spendley et al. fixed simplex shape algorithm. This algorithm is for unconstrained problems (i.e. bounds and non linear constraints are not taken into account)

- "variable"
the Nelder-Mead variable simplex shape algorithm. This algorithm is for unconstrained problems (i.e. bounds and non linear constraints are not taken into account)

- "box"
the Box complex algorithm. This algorithm takes into account bounds and nonlinear inequality constraints.

- "mine"
the user-defined algorithm, associated with the

`-mymethod`

option. See below for details.

- -simplex0method
the method to use to compute the initial simplex. The first vertex in the simplex is always the initial guess associated with the -x0 option. The following methods are available :

- "given"
the coordinates associated with the -coords0 option are used to compute the initial simplex, with arbitrary number of vertices.

This allow the user to setup the initial simplex by a specific method which is not provided by the current component (for example with a simplex computed from a design of experiments). This allows also to configure the initial simplex so that a specific behaviour of the algorithm an be reproduced (for example the Mac Kinnon test case).

The given matrix is expected to have n rows and k columns, where n is the dimension of the problem and k is the number of vertices.

- "axes"
the simplex is computed from the coordinate axes and the length associated with the -simplex0length option.

- "spendley"
the simplex is computed so that it is regular with the length associated with the -simplex0length option (i.e. all the edges have the same length).

- "pfeffer"
the simplex is computed from an heuristic, in the neighborhood of the initial guess. This initial simplex depends on the -simplex0deltausual and -simplex0deltazero.

- "randbounds"
the simplex is computed from the bounds and a random number. This option is available only if bounds are available : if bounds are not available, an error is generated. This method is usually associated with Box's algorithm. The number of vertices in the simplex is taken from the -boxnbpoints option.

- -coords0
the coordinates of the vertices of the initial simplex. If the -simplex0method option is set to "given", these coordinates are used to compute the initial simplex. This matrix is expected to have shape nbve x n where nbve is the number of vertices and n is the number of variables.

- -simplex0length
the length to use when the initial simplex is computed with the "axes" or "spendley" methods. If the initial simplex is computed from "spendley" method, the length is expected to be a scalar value. If the initial simplex is computed from "axes" method, it may be either a scalar value or a vector of values, with rank n, where n is the number of variables.

- -simplex0deltausual
the relative delta for non-zero parameters in "pfeffer" method. The default value is 0.05.

- -simplex0deltazero
the absolute delta for non-zero parameters in "pfeffer" method. The default value is 0.0075.

- -rho
the reflection coefficient. This parameter is used when the -method option is set to "fixed" or "variable". The default value is 1.0.

- -chi
the expansion coefficient. This parameter is used when the -method option is set to "variable". The default value is 2.0.

- -gamma
the contraction coefficient. This parameter is used when the -method option is set to "variable". The default value is 0.5.

- -sigma
the shrinkage coefficient. This parameter is used when the -method option is set to "fixed" or "variable". The default value is 0.5.

- -tolsimplexizemethod
set to %f to disable the tolerance on the simplex size. The default value is %t. If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "tolsize".

When this criteria is enabled, the values of the options -tolsimplexizeabsolute and -tolsimplexizerelative are used in the termination criteria. The method to compute the size is the "sigmaplus" method.

- -tolsimplexizeabsolute
the absolute tolerance on the simplex size. The default value is 0.0.

- -tolsimplexizerelative
the relative tolerance on the simplex size. The default value is %eps.

- -tolssizedeltafvmethod
set to %t to enable the termination criteria based on the size of the simplex and the difference of function value in the simplex. The default value is %f. If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "tolsizedeltafv".

This termination criteria uses the values of the options -tolsimplexizeabsolute and -toldeltafv. This criteria is identical to Matlab's fminsearch.

- -toldeltafv
the absolute tolerance on the difference between the highest and the lowest function values.

- -tolvarianceflag
set to %t to enable the termination criteria based on the variance of the function value. If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "tolvariance".

This criteria is suggested by Nelder and Mead.

- -tolabsolutevariance
the absolute tolerance on the variance of the function values of the simplex.

- -tolrelativevariance
the relative tolerance on the variance of the function values of the simplex.

- -kelleystagnationflag
set to %t to enable the termination criteria using Kelley's stagnation detection, based on sufficient decrease condition. The default value is %f. If this criteria is triggered, the status of the optimization is set to "kelleystagnation".

- -kelleynormalizationflag
set to %f to disable the normalization of the alpha coefficient in Kelley's stagnation detection, i.e. use the value of the option -kelleystagnationalpha0 as is. Default value is %t, i.e. the simplex gradient of the initial simplex is taken into account in the stagnation detection.

- -kelleystagnationalpha0
the parameter used in Kelley's stagnation detection. The default value is 1.e-4.

- -restartflag
set to %t to enable the automatic restart of the algorithm. Default value is %f.

- -restartdetection
the method to detect if the automatic restart must be performed. The following methods are available :

- "oneill"
the factorial local optimality test by O'Neill is used. If the test finds a local point which is better than the computed optimum, a restart is performed.

- "kelley"
the sufficient decrease condition by O'Neill is used. If the test finds that the status of the optimization is "kelleystagnation", a restart is performed. This status may be generated if the -kelleystagnationflag option is set to %t.

The default method is "oneill".

- -restartmax
the maximum number of restarts, when automatic restart is enabled via the -restartflag option. Default value is 3.

- -restarteps
the relative epsilon value used to check for optimality in the factorial O'Neill restart detection. The default value is %eps.

- -restartstep
the absolute step length used to check for optimality in the factorial O'Neill restart detection. It is expected to be either a positive double or a column vector of

`n`

positive doubles, where n is the number of variables in the problem. The default value is 1.0.- -restartsimplexmethod
the method to compute the initial simplex after a restart. The following methods are available.

- "given"
the coordinates associated with the -coords0 option are used to compute the initial simplex, with arbitrary number of vertices.

This allow the user to setup the initial simplex by a specific method which is not provided by the current component (for example with a simplex computed from a design of experiments). This allows also to configure the initial simplex so that a specific behaviour of the algorithm an be reproduced (for example the Mc Kinnon test case).

The given matrix is expected to have n rows and k columns, where n is the dimension of the problem and k is the number of vertices.

- "axes"
the simplex is computed from the coordinate axes and the length associated with the -simplex0length option.

- "spendley"
the simplex is computed so that it is regular with the length associated with the -simplex0length option (i.e. all the edges have the same length).

- "pfeffer"
the simplex is computed from an heuristic, in the neighborhood of the initial guess. This initial simplex depends on the -simplex0deltausual and -simplex0deltazero.

- "randbounds"
the simplex is computed from the bounds and a random number. This option is available only if bounds are available : if bounds are not available, an error is generated. This method is usually associated with Box's algorithm. The number of vertices in the simplex is taken from the -boxnbpoints option.

- "oriented"
the simplex is computed so that it is oriented, as suggested by C.T. Kelley.

The default method is "oriented".

- -scalingsimplex0
the algorithm used to scale the initial simplex into the nonlinear constraints. The following two algorithms are provided :

"tox0": scales the vertices toward the initial guess.

"tocentroid": scales the vertices toward the centroid, as recommended by Box.

If the centroid happens to be unfeasible, because the constraints are not convex, the scaling of the initial simplex toward the centroid may fail. Since the initial guess is always feasible, scaling toward the initial guess cannot fail. The default value is "tox0".

- -boxnbpoints
the number of points in the initial simplex, when the -simplex0method is set to

`"randbounds"`

. The value of this option is also use to update the simplex when a restart is performed and the`-restartsimplexmethod`

option is set to`"randbounds"`

. The default value is so that the number of points is twice the number of variables of the problem.- -boxineqscaling
the scaling coefficient used to scale the trial point for function improvement or into the constraints of Box's algorithm. Default value is 0.5.

- -guinalphamin
the minimum value of alpha when scaling the vertices of the simplex into nonlinear constraints in Box's algorithm. Default value is 1.e-5.

- -boxreflect
the reflection factor in Box's algorithm. Default value is 1.3.

- -boxtermination
set to %t to enable Box termination criteria. Default value is %f.

- -boxtolf
the absolute tolerance on difference of function values in the simplex, suggested by Box. This tolerance is used if the -boxtermination option is set to %t. Default value is 1.e-5.

- -boxnbmatch
the number of consecutive match of Box termination criteria. Default value is 5.

- -boxboundsalpha
the parameter used to project the vertices into the bounds in Box's algorithm. Default value is 0.000001.

- -mymethod
a user-derined simplex algorithm. See below for details (default is empty).

- -myterminate
a user-defined terminate function. See below for details (default is empty).

- -myterminateflag
set to %t to enable the user-defined terminate function (default is %f).

- value
the value.

- value = neldermead_cget (this,key)
Get the value for the given key. If the key is unknown, generates an error.

- this
The current object.

- key
the name of the key to quiery. The list of available keys is the same as for the neldermead_configure function.

- value = neldermead_get ( this , key )
Get the value for the given key. If the key is unknown, generates an error.

- this
The current object.

- key
the key to get.

The following keys are available :

- -funevals
the number of function evaluations

- -iterations
the number of iterations

- -xopt
the x optimum, as a n x 1 column vector, where n is the number of variables.

- -fopt
the optimum cost function value

- -historyxopt
an array, with nbiter values, containing the history of x during the iterations.

This array is available after optimization if the history storing was enabled with the -storehistory option.

- -historyfopt
an array, with nbiter values, containing the history of the function value during the iterations.

This array is available after optimization if the history storing was enabled with the -storehistory option.

- -fx0
the function value for the initial guess

- -status
a string containing the status of the optimization. See below for details about the optimization status.

- -historysimplex
a matrix containing the history of the simplex during the iterations. This matrix has rank nbiter x nbve x n, where nbiter is the number of iterations, nbve is the number of vertices in the simplex and n is the number of variables.

- -simplex0
the initial simplex. This is a simplex object, which is suitable for processing with the optimsimplex component.

- -simplexopt
the optimum simplex. This is a simplex object, which is suitable for processing with the optimsimplex component.

- -restartnb
the number of actual restarts performed.

Most fields are available only after an optimization has been performed with one call to the neldermead_search method.

- this = neldermead_search ( this )
Performs the optimization associated with the method associated with the -method option and find the optimum.

- this
The current object.

If the -restartflag option is enabled, automatic restarts are performed, based on the -restartdetection option.

- this = neldermead_restart ( this )
Restarts the optimization by updating the simplex and performing a new search.

- this
The current object.

- [ this , result ] = neldermead_function ( this , x )
Call the cost function and return the value.

- this
The current object.

- x
the point where the function is to be evaluated

- index
optionnal, a flag to pass to the cost function (default = 1). See the section "The cost function" for available values of index.

### The cost function

The option `-function`

allows to configure the cost function. The cost
function is used to compute the objective function value `f`

.
If the `-nbineqconst`

option is configured to a non-zero value, the cost function
must also compute the value of the nonlinear, positive, inequality constraints `c`

.
The cost function can also take as input/output an additional
argument, if the `-costfargument`

option is configured.
Depending of these options, the cost function can have one of the following headers :

// Without additionnal data [ f , index ] = costf ( x , index ) [ f , c , index ] = costf ( x , index ) // With -costfargument [ f , index , data ] = costf ( x , index , data ) [ f , c , index , data ] = costf ( x , index , data )

where

- x
the current point, as a column vector

- index
optional, an integer representing the value to compute

- f
the value of the cost function

- c
the value of the non-linear, positive, inequality constraints

- data
an user-provided input/output argument

The index input parameter tells to the cost function what is expected in the output arguments. It has the following meaning

- index = 2
compute

`f`

- index = 5
compute

`c`

- index = 6
compute

`f`

and`c`

In the most simplex case, there is no additionnal cost function argument and no nonlinear constraints. In this case, the cost function is expected to have the following header

function [f, index]=myfunction(x, index)

The `data`

argument is both input and output and the following paragraph
explains for what reason and how it works.

This feature may be used in the situation where the cost function has to update its
environment from call to call. Its simplest use is to count the
number of calls to the cost function, but this feature is already available directly.
Consider the more practical situation where the optimization requires the execution of
an underlying Newton method (a chemical solver for example).
This Newton method requires an initial guess x0. If the initial guess
for this underlying Newton method is kept constant, the Newton method may
have problems to converge when the current optimization point get far away from the
its initial point. If the `-costfargument`

option is provided, the
initial guess for the Newton method can be updated so that it gets the
value of the previous call. This way, the Newton method will have less problems to
converge and the cost function evaluation may be faster.

We now present how the feature works.
Everytime the cost function is called back, the `-costfargument`

option
is passed to the cost function as an input argument. If the cost function modifies its content
in the output argument, the content of the `-costfargument`

option is updated accordingly.
Once the optimization is performed, the user may call the `neldermead_cget`

function and get back an updated `-costfargument`

content.

### The output function

The option -outputcommand allows to configure a command which is called back at the start of the optimization, at each iteration and at the end of the optimization.

The output function must have the following header

function outputcmd(state, data, myobj)

where

- state
a string representing the current state of the algorithm. Available values are "init", "iter", "done".

- data
a tlist containing at least the following entries

- x
the current optimum

- fval
the current function value

- iteration
the current iteration index

- funccount
the number of function evaluations

- simplex
the current simplex

- step
the previous step in the algorithm. The following values are available : "init", "done", "reflection", "expansion", "insidecontraction", "outsidecontraction", "reflectionnext", "shrink".

- myobj
a user-defined parameter.

This input parameter is defined with the -outputcommandarg option.

The output function may be used when debugging the specialized optimization algorithm, so that a verbose logging is produced. It may also be used to write one or several report files in a specialized format (ASCII, LaTeX, Excel, Hdf5, etc...). The user-defined parameter may be used in that case to store file names or logging options.

### Termination

The current component takes into account for several generic termination criterias.

The following termination criterias are enabled by default :

-maxiter,

-maxfunevals,

-tolxmethod.

-tolsimplexizemethod.

The optimization_terminate function uses a set of rules to compute if the termination occurs, which leads to an optimization status which is equal to one of the following : "continue", "maxiter", "maxfunevals", "tolf", "tolx", "tolsize", "tolsizedeltafv", "kelleystagnation", "tolboxf", "tolvariance". The value of the status may also be a user-defined string, in the case where a user-defined termination function has been set.

The following set of rules is examined in this order.

By default, the status is

`"continue"`

and the`terminate`

flag is %f.The number of iterations is examined and compared to the

`-maxiter`

option : if the following conditioniterations >= maxiter

is true, then the status is set to "maxiter" and terminate is set to %t.

The number of function evaluations and compared to the

`-maxfunevals`

option is examined : if the following conditionfunevals >= maxfunevals

is true, then the status is set to

`"maxfuneval"`

and`terminate`

is set to %t.The tolerance on function value is examined depending on the value of the

`-tolfunmethod`

.- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if the following condition

is true, then the status is set to "tolf" and terminate is set to %t.

The relative termination criteria on the function value works well if the function value at optimum is near zero. In that case, the function value at initial guess fx0 may be used as

`previousfopt`

.This criteria is sensitive to the

`-tolfunrelative`

and`-tolfunabsolute`

options.The absolute termination criteria on the function value works if the user has an accurate idea of the optimum function value.

The tolerance on x is examined depending on the value of the -tolxmethod.

- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if the following condition

is true, then the status is set to

`"tolx"`

and`terminate`

is set to %t.

This criteria is sensitive to the

`-tolxrelative`

and`-tolxabsolute`

options.The relative termination criteria on x works well if x at optimum is different from zero. In that case, the condition measures the distance between two iterates.

The absolute termination criteria on x works if the user has an accurate idea of the scale of the optimum x. If the optimum x is near 0, the relative tolerance will not work and the absolute tolerance is more appropriate.

The tolerance on simplex size is examined depending on the value of the

`-tolsimplexizemethod`

option.- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if the following condition

ssize < tolsimplexizerelative * simplexsize0 + tolsimplexizeabsolute

is true where

`simplexsize0`

is the size of the simplex at iteration 0, then the`status`

is set to`"tolsize"`

and`terminate`

is set to %t.The size of the simplex is computed from the "sigmaplus" method of the

`optimsimplex`

component. This criteria is sensitive to the`-tolsimplexizeabsolute`

and the`-tolsimplexizerelative`

options.

The absolute tolerance on simplex size and absolute difference of function value is examined depending on the value of the -tolssizedeltafvmethod option.

- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if both the following conditions

ssize < tolsimplexizeabsolute

shiftfv < toldeltafv

is true where

`ssize`

is the current simplex size and`shiftfv`

is the absolute value of the difference of function value between the highest and lowest vertices, then the status is set to`"tolsizedeltafv"`

and`terminate`

is set to %t.

The stagnation condition based on Kelley sufficient decrease condition is examined depending on the value of the

`-kelleystagnationflag`

option.- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if the following condition

newfvmean <= oldfvmean - alpha * sg' * sg

is true where

`newfvmean`

(resp.`oldfvmean`

) is the function value average in the current iteration (resp. in the previous iteration), then the status is set to "kelleystagnation" and terminate is set to %t. Here,`alpha`

is a non-dimensional coefficient and`sg`

is the simplex gradient.

The termination condition suggested by Box is examined depending on the value of the -boxtermination option.

- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if both the following conditions

shiftfv < boxtolf

boxkount == boxnbmatch

is true where

`shiftfv`

is the difference of function value between the best and worst vertices, and`boxkount`

is the number of consecutive iterations where this criteria is met, then the status is set to "tolboxf" and terminate is set to %t. Here, the`boxtolf`

parameter is the value associated with the`-boxtolf`

option and is a user-defined absolute tolerance on the function value. The`boxnbmatch`

parameter is the value associated with the`-boxnbmatch`

option and is the user-defined number of consecutive match.

The termination condition based on the variance of the function values in the simplex is examined depending on the value of the

`-tolvarianceflag`

option.- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if the following condition

var < tolrelativevariance * variancesimplex0 + tolabsolutevariance

is true where

`var`

is the variance of the function values in the simplex, then the status is set to "tolvariance" and terminate is set to %t. Here, the`tolrelativevariance`

parameter is the value associated with the`-tolrelativevariance`

option and is a user-defined relative tolerance on the variance of the function values. The`tolabsolutevariance`

parameter is the value associated with the`-tolabsolutevariance`

option and is the user-defined absolute tolerance of the variance of the function values.

The user-defined termination condition is examined depending on the value of the

`-myterminateflag`

option.- %f
then the criteria is just ignored.

- %t
if the

`term`

output argument boolean returned by the termination function is true, then the status is set to the user-defined status and`terminate`

is set to %t.

### Kelley's stagnation detection

The stagnation detection criteria suggested by Kelley is based on a sufficient decrease condition, which requires a parameter alpha > 0 to be defined. The -kelleynormalizationflag option allows to configure the method to use to compute this alpha parameter : two methods are available, where each method corresponds to a different paper by Kelley :

- constant
In "Detection and Remediation of Stagnation in the Nelder--Mead Algorithm Using a Sufficient Decrease Condition", Kelley uses a constant alpha, with the suggested value 1.e-4, which is is typical choice for line search method.

- normalized
in "Iterative Methods for Optimization", Kelley uses a normalized alpha, computed from the following formula

alpha = alpha0 * sigma0 / nsg

where sigma0 is the size of the initial simplex and nsg is the norm of the simplex gradient for the initial guess point.

### O'Neill factorial optimality test

In "Algorithm AS47 - Function minimization using a simplex
procedure", R. O'Neill presents a fortran 77 implementation of the simplex
method. A factorial test is used to check if the computed optimum point is
a local minimum. If the -restartdetection option is set to "oneill", that
factorial test is used to see if a restart should be performed.
O'Neill's factorial test requires `2n`

function evaluations, where `n`

is the number of variables.

### Spendley et al. implementation notes

The original paper may be implemented with several variations, which might lead to different results. This section defines what algorithmic choices have been used.

The paper states the following rules.

"Rule 1. Ascertain the lowest reading y, of yi ... yk+1 Complete a new simplex Sp by excluding the point Vp corresponding to y, and replacing it by V* defined as above."

"Rule 2. If a result has occurred in (k + 1) successive simplexes, and is not then eliminated by application of Rule 1, do not move in the direction indicated by Rule 1, or at all, but discard the result and replace it by a new observation at the same point."

"Rule 3. If y is the lowest reading in So , and if the next observation made, y* , is the lowest reading in the new simplex S , do not apply Rule 1 and return to So from Sp . Move out of S, by rejecting the second lowest reading (which is also the second lowest reading in So)."

We implement the following "rules" of the Spendley et al. method.

Rule 1 is strictly applied, but the reflection is done by reflection the high point, since we minimize a function instead of maximizing it, like Spendley.

Rule 2 is NOT implemented, as we expect that the function evaluation is not subject to errors.

Rule 3 is applied, ie reflection with respect to next to high point.

The original paper does not mention any shrink step. When the original algorithm cannot improve the function value with reflection steps, the basic algorithm stops. In order to make the current implementation of practical value, a shrink step is included, with shrinkage factor sigma. This perfectly fits into to the spirit of the original paper. Notice that the shrink step make the rule #3 (reflection with respect to next-to-worst vertex) unnecessary. Indeed, the minimum required steps are the reflection and shrinkage. Never the less, the rule #3 has been kept in order to make the algorithm as close as it can be to the original.

### Nelder-Mead implementation notes

The purpose of this section is to analyse the current implementation of Nelder-Mead's algorithm.

The algorithm that we use is described in "Iterative Methods for Optimization" by C. T. Kelley.

The original paper uses a "greedy" expansion, in which the expansion point is accepted whatever its function value. The current implementation, as most implementations, uses the expansion point only if it improves over the reflection point, that is,

if fe<fr, then the expansion point is accepted,

if not, the reflection point is accepted.

The termination criteria suggested by Nelder and Mead is based on an
absolute tolerance on the standard deviation of the function values in the simplex.
We provide this original termination criteria with the `-tolvarianceflag`

option, which is disabled by default.

### Box's complex algorithm implementation notes

In this section, we analyse the current implementation of Box's complex method.

The initial simplex can be computed as in Box's paper, but this may not
be safe. In his paper, Box suggest that if a vertex of the initial simplex
does not satisfy the non linear constraints, then it should be "moved halfway
toward the centroid of those points already selected". This behaviour
is available when the `-scalingsimplex0`

option is set to
`"tocenter"`

. It may happen, as suggested by Guin, that
the centroid is not feasible. This may happen if the constraints are not
convex. In this case, the initial simplex cannot be computed. This is why
we provide the `"tox0"`

option, which allows to compute the
initial simplex by scaling toward the initial guess, which is always feasible.

In Box's paper, the scaling into the non linear constraints is performed
"toward" the centroid, that is, by using a scaling factor equal to 0.5.
This default scaling factor might be sub-optimal in certain situations.
This is why we provide the `-boxineqscaling`

option,
which allows to configure the scaling factor.

In Box's paper, whether we are concerned with the initial simplex or with the
simplex at a given iteration, the scaling for the non linear constraints is performed
without end. This is because Box's hypothesis is that "ultimately, a satisfactory
point will be found". As suggested by Guin, if the process fails, the algorithm
goes into an infinite loop. In order to avoid this, we perform the scaling until
a minimum scaling value is reached, as defined by the `-guinalphamin`

option.

We have taken into account for the comments by Guin, but it should be emphasized that the current implementation is still as close as possible to Box's algorithm and is not Guin's algorithm. More precisely, during the iterations, the scaling for the non linear constraints is still performed toward the centroid, be it feasible or not.

### User-defined algorithm

The `-mymethod`

option allows to configure a user-defined
simplex-based algorithm. The reason for this option is that many simplex-based
variants of Nelder-Mead's algorithm have been developped over the years,
with specific goals. While it is not possible to provide them all, it is very convenient
to use the current structure without being forced to make many developments.

The value of the `-mymethod`

option is expected to be
a Scilab function with the following header

function this=myalgorithm(this) endfunction

where `-this`

is the current object.

In order to use the user-defined algorithm, the `-method`

option must
be set to "mine". In this case, the component performs the optimization
exactly as if the user-defined algorithm was provided by the component.

The user interested in that feature may use the internal scripts provided in the distribution as templates and tune his own algorithm from that point. There is of course no warranty that the user-defined algorithm improves on the standard algorithm, so that users use this feature at their own risks.

### User-defined termination

Many termination criteria are found in the bibliography.
Users which aim at reproducing the results exhibited in a particular
paper may find that that none of the provided termination criteria match the
one which is used in the paper. It may also happen that the provided termination
criteria are not suitable for the specific test case. In those situation the
`-myterminate`

option allows to configure a user-defined
termination function.

The value of the `-myterminate`

option is expected to be
a Scilab function with the following header

function [this, terminate, status]=mystoppingrule(this, simplex) endfunction

where `-this`

is the current object and `-simplex`

is the current simplex. The `terminate`

output argument is
a boolean which is false if the algorithm must continue and true if the algorithm
must stop. The `status`

output argument is
a string which is associated with the current termination criteria.

In order to enable the use of the user-defined termination function, the value of the
`-myterminateflag`

must be set to true.
At each iteration, if the -myterminateflag option has been set to true,
the user-defined termination is called. If the `terminate`

output argument is true, then the algorithm is stopped.
In that case, the value of the `-status`

option of the
`neldermead_get`

is the value of the `status`

output argument of the user-defined termination function.

### Example #1: basic use

In the following example, we solve a simple quadratic test case. We begin by defining the cost function, which takes 2 input arguments and returns the objective. The classical starting point [-1.2 1.0] is used. The neldermead_new creates a new neldermead object. Then we use the neldermead_configure method to configure the parameters of the problem. We use all default settings and perform the search for the optimum. The neldermead_display function is used to display the state of the optimization and the neldermead_get is used to retrieve the optimum parameters.

function [f, index]=quadratic(x, index) f = x(1)^2 + x(2)^2; endfunction x0 = [1.0 1.0].'; nm = neldermead_new (); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-numberofvariables",2); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-function",quadratic); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-x0",x0); nm = neldermead_search(nm); nm xopt = neldermead_get(nm,"-xopt"); nm = neldermead_destroy(nm);

### Example #2: customized use

In the following example, we solve the Rosenbrock test case. We begin by defining the Rosenbrock function, which takes 2 input arguments and returns the objective. The classical starting point [-1.2 1.0] is used. The neldermead_new creates a new neldermead object. Then we use the neldermead_configure method to configure the parameters of the problem. The initial simplex is computed from the axes and the single length 1.0 (this is the default, but is explicitely written here as an example). The variable simplex algorithm by Nelder and Mead is used, which corresponds to the -method "variable" option. The neldermead_search function performs the search for the minimum. Once the minimum is found, the neldermead_contour allows to compute the data required by the contour function. This is possible since our problem involves only 2 parameters. This function uses the cost function previously configured to compute the required data. The contour plot is directly drawn from the data provided by neldermead_contour. Then we plot the initial guess on the contour plot as a blue dot. The neldermead_get function is used to get the optimum, which is associated with the -xopt option. The optimum is plot on the contour plot as a red dot.

function [f, index]=rosenbrock(x, index) f = 100*(x(2)-x(1)^2)^2+(1-x(1))^2; endfunction x0 = [-1.2 1.0]' nm = neldermead_new (); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-numberofvariables",2); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-function",rosenbrock); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-x0",x0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-maxiter",200); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-maxfunevals",300); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-tolfunrelative",10*%eps); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-tolxrelative",10*%eps); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-simplex0method","axes"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-simplex0length",1.0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-method","variable"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-verbose",0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-verbosetermination",0); nm = neldermead_search(nm); xopt = neldermead_get(nm,"-xopt") nm = neldermead_destroy(nm); // Contouring the function. function f=rosenbrockC(x1, x2) index = 2 [ f , index ] = rosenbrock ( [x1,x2]' , index ) endfunction xdata = linspace ( -2 , 2 , 100 ); ydata = linspace ( -1 , 2 , 100 ); h = scf(); contour ( xdata , ydata , rosenbrockC , [2 10 100 500 1000 2000] ) // Plot starting point: x0 : blue dot plot(x0(1),x0(2),"bo"); // xopt : red star plot(xopt(1),xopt(2),"r*");

The -verbose option allows to get detailed informations about the current optimization process. The following is a sample output for an optimization based on the Nelder and Mead variable-shape simplex algorithm. Only the output corresponding to the iteration #156 is displayed. In order to display specific outputs (or to create specific output files and graphics), the -outputcommand option should be used.

[...] ================================================================= Iteration #156 (total = 156) Function Eval #297 Xopt : 1 1 Fopt : 6.871176e-027 DeltaFv : 2.880999e-026 Center : 1 1 Size : 2.548515e-013 Vertex #1/3 : fv=0.000000, x=1.000000 1.000000 Vertex #2/3 : fv=0.000000, x=1.000000 1.000000 Vertex #3/3 : fv=0.000000, x=1.000000 1.000000 nmplot_outputcmd (1) Reflect xbar=1 1 Function Evaluation #298 is [1.155D-25] at [1 1] xr=[1 1], f(xr)=0.000000 Contract - inside Function Evaluation #299 is [6.023D-27] at [1 1] xc=1 1, f(xc)=0.000000 > Perform Inside Contraction Sort [...]

### Example #3: use output function

In the following example, we show how to use the output command to create specialized outputs. These outputs may be used to create specific data files or make interactive graphic outputs.

We define the function "myoutputcmd", which takes the current state as its first argument. The state is a string which can contain "init", "iter" or "done", depending on the status of the optimization. The data input argument is a tlist, which contains the data associated with the current iteration. In this case, we use the fields to print a message in the console. As another example of use, we could format the message so that it uses LaTeX formatting rules, which may allow the user to directly copy and paste the output into a LaTeX report.

function [f, index]=rosenbrock(x, index) f = 100*(x(2)-x(1)^2)^2 + (1-x(1))^2; endfunction // // myoutputcmd -- // This command is called back by the Nelder-Mead // algorithm. // Arguments // state : the current state of the algorithm // "init", "iter", "done" // data : the data at the current state // This is a tlist with the following entries: // * x : the optimal vector of parameters // * fval : the minimum function value // * simplex : the simplex, as a simplex object // * iteration : the number of iterations performed // * funccount : the number of function evaluations // * step : the type of step in the previous iteration // function myoutputcmd(state, data) iter = data.iteration if ( state == "init" ) then mprintf ( "=================================\n"); mprintf ( "Initialization\n"); elseif ( state == "done" ) then mprintf ( "=================================\n"); mprintf ( "End of Optimization\n"); end fc = data.funccount fval = data.fval x = data.x simplex = data.simplex // Simplex is a data structure, which can be managed // by the optimsimplex class. ssize = optimsimplex_size ( simplex ) mprintf ( "Iter. #%3d, Feval #%3d, Fval = %.1e, x = %s, S = %.1e\n", .. iter, fc, fval, strcat(string(x)," "), ssize); endfunction nm = neldermead_new (); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-numberofvariables",2); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-function",rosenbrock); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-x0",[-1.2 1.0]'); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-maxiter",200); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-maxfunevals",300); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-tolfunrelative",10*%eps); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-tolxrelative",10*%eps); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-simplex0method","axes"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-simplex0length",1.0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-method","variable"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-verbose",0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-verbosetermination",0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-outputcommand",myoutputcmd); nm = neldermead_search(nm); nm = neldermead_destroy(nm);

The previous script produces the following output.

================================= Initialization Iter. # 0, Feval # 5, Fval = 2.4e+001, x = -1.2 1, S = 1.0e+000 Iter. # 1, Feval # 5, Fval = 2.4e+001, x = -1.2 1, S = 1.0e+000 Iter. # 2, Feval # 7, Fval = 2.4e+001, x = -1.2 1, S = 1.0e+000 Iter. # 3, Feval # 9, Fval = 2.4e+001, x = -1.2 1, S = 1.0e+000 Iter. # 4, Feval # 11, Fval = 1.0e+001, x = -1.0125 0.78125, S = 6.0e-001 Iter. # 5, Feval # 13, Fval = 4.7e+000, x = -1.028125 1.1328125, S = 3.5e-001 ... Iter. #155, Feval #297, Fval = 2.0e-026, x = 1 1, S = 4.6e-013 Iter. #156, Feval #299, Fval = 6.9e-027, x = 1 1, S = 2.5e-013 Iter. #157, Feval #301, Fval = 6.0e-027, x = 1 1, S = 2.8e-013 ================================= End of Optimization Iter. #157, Feval #301, Fval = 6.0e-027, x = 1 1, S = 2.8e-013

### Example #4: Optimization with bounds

The `neldermead`

solver can optimize problems with
bounds.
To do this, we can use Box's algorithm, which projects the simplex
into the bounds during the optimization.
In this case, the initial guess must be located within the bounds.

In the following example, we find the minimum of a quadratic function within given bounds. In order to compute the initial simplex, we use randomized bounds, that is, we compute k random vertices uniformly distributed within the bounds. The default value is so that the number of points is twice the number of variables of the problem. In this particular case, we have n=2 variables and k=4 vertices.

function [f, index]=myquad(x, index) f = x(1)^2 + x(2)^2 endfunction rand("seed" , 0) x0 = [1.3 1.8].'; nm = neldermead_new (); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-numberofvariables",2); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-function",myquad); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-x0",x0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-method","box"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boundsmin",[1 1]); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boundsmax",[2 2]); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-simplex0method","randbounds"); nm = neldermead_search(nm); xopt = neldermead_get(nm,"-xopt") // Should be [1 1] fopt = neldermead_get(nm,"-fopt") // Should be 2 nm = neldermead_destroy(nm);

### Example #5: Optimization with nonlinear constraints

The `neldermead`

solver can optimize problems with
nonlinear constraints.
In the following example, we solve Rosenbrock's Post Office problem, which
has both bounds and linear constraints.
In our example, we will manage the linear constraints as general non-linear
constraints (i.e. the solver does not make a difference if the constraints are
linear or non-linear).
This example was first
presented in "An automatic method for finding the greatest or least value of a function",
Rosenbrock, 1960.
This example was first used with the complex method of Box in
"Algorithm 454: The complex method for constrained optimization" by
Richardson, Kuester, 1971.
Richardson and Kuester found the minimum function value
F=-3456, with X1 = 24.01, X2 = 12.00, X3 = 12.00 and
72 Iterations were necessary for them to get this result.

In the following function, we define the function `fpostoffice`

,
which returns both the objective function `f`

and the
constraint value `c`

.
The original constraint is the "double" inequality constraint
`0<=x(1) + 2 * x(2) + 2 * x(3) <=72`

.
To take this constraint into account, we turn it into two separate, positive,
constraints and set `c`

as a 1-by-2 matrix of doubles.

function [f, c, index]=fpostoffice(x, index) f = [] c = [] if ( index==2 | index==6 ) then f = -x(1) * x(2) * x(3) end if ( index==5 | index==6 ) then c1 = x(1) + 2 * x(2) + 2 * x(3) c2 = 72 - c1 c = [c1 c2] end endfunction

In the following script, we solve Rosenbrock's Post Office problem. First, we initialize the random number generator, so that the results are always the same. Then, we check that the cost function is correctly defined and that the constraints are satisfied at the initial guess. Then we configure the algorithm so that Box's algorithm is used and setup the bounds of the problem. We configure the parameters of the algorithm as suggested by Box.

rand("seed" , 0); x0 = [1.0 1.0 1.0].'; // Compute f(x0) : should be close to -1 fx0 = fpostoffice ( x0 , 2 ) // Compute the constraints: cx0 should be [5 67] [ fx0 , cx0, index ] = fpostoffice ( x0 , 6 ) // Compute f(xopt) : fopt should be -3456 xopt = [24 12 12].'; fopt = fpostoffice ( xopt ); // Setup optimization nm = neldermead_new (); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-numberofvariables",3); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-function",fpostoffice); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-x0",x0); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-maxiter",300); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-maxfunevals",300); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-method","box"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boundsmin",[0.0 0.0 0.0]); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boundsmax",[42.0 42.0 42.0]); // Configure like Box nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-simplex0method","randbounds"); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-nbineqconst",2); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-tolxmethod" , %f ); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-tolsimplexizemethod",%f); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boxtermination" , %t ); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boxtolf" , 0.001 ); nm = neldermead_configure(nm,"-boxboundsalpha" , 0.0001 ); // // Check that the cost function is correctly connected. [ nm , result ] = neldermead_function ( nm , x0 ); // // Perform optimization nm = neldermead_search(nm); xcomp = neldermead_get(nm,"-xopt") // Compare with the exact optimum: xopt fcomp = neldermead_get(nm,"-fopt") // Compare with the exact function value: fopt nm = neldermead_destroy(nm);

In general, we should not expect too much from this algorithm with nonlinear constraints. Indeed, some cases require thousands of iterations to converge to an optimum, because the nonlinear constraints leave a too small space for the simplex to evolve.

### Bibliography

"Sequential Application of Simplex Designs in Optimisation and Evolutionary Operation", Spendley, W. and Hext, G. R. and Himsworth, F. R., American Statistical Association and American Society for Quality, 1962

"A Simplex Method for Function Minimization", Nelder, J. A. and Mead, R., The Computer Journal, 1965

"A New Method of Constrained Optimization and a Comparison With Other Methods", M. J. Box, The Computer Journal 1965 8(1):42-52, 1965 by British Computer Society

"Discussion and correspondence: modification of the complex method of constrained optimization", J. A. Guin, The Computer Journal, 1968

"Detection and Remediation of Stagnation in the Nelder--Mead Algorithm Using a Sufficient Decrease Condition", Kelley C. T., SIAM J. on Optimization, 1999

"Iterative Methods for Optimization", C. T. Kelley, SIAM Frontiers in Applied Mathematics, 1999

"Algorithm AS47 - Function minimization using a simplex procedure", O'Neill, R., Applied Statistics, 1971

"Nelder Mead's User Manual", Consortium Scilab - Digiteo, Michael Baudin, 2010

### Authors

Michael Baudin - INRIA - 2008-2009

Michael Baudin - Digiteo - 2009

### See Also

- optimbase — Provides an abstract class for a general optimization component.
- optimsimplex — Manage a simplex with arbitrary number of points.
- nmplot — Manage a simplex with arbitrary number of points.

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