vectorfind
locates occurences of a (wildcarded) vector in a matrix or hypermatrix
Syntax
ind = vectorfind(haystack, needle) ind = vectorfind(haystack, needle, dimAlong) ind = vectorfind(haystack, needle, dimAlong, ,indType) [ind, matching] = vectorfind(haystack, needle, dimAlong, joker) [ind, matching] = vectorfind(haystack, needle, dimAlong, joker, indType)
Arguments
 haystack
A matrix or hypermatrix of any type, possibly sparse encoded: The array in which the vector will be searched.
 needle
The vector to be searched in the
haystack
, of the same type. If thehaystack
is sparseencoded, theneedle
may be dense. In addition, if thehaystack
is boolean and ajoker
is used, theneedle
must be numerical instead of boolean. In this case, any of its nonzero components is%T
 Decimal numbers, complex numbers, and encoded integers are considered of the same type: numerical.
%nan
values are accepted in theneedle
. They are processed in a regular way, as other values. They are matched only by%nan
in thehaystack
.
 dimAlong
Direction inside the
haystack
array along which theneedle
vector is searched. Possible values are"r"
or1
(along rows),"c"
or2
(along columns), or for an hypermatrix, any integer such that2 < dimAlong <= ndims(haystack)
representing the index of the scanned dimension. By default,"r"
is used.dimAlong
is mandatory when ajoker
orindType
is specified. joker
Single element of
needle
's data type. Theneedle
components equal to thejoker
are ignored (they match/accept any values from thehaystack
).When the haystack is boolean, the
joker
must be a nonzero number.To skip the
joker
, specify..dimAlong, ,indType
with no joker value. indType
Single caseinsensitive word among
""
(empty text = default),"headIJK"
, and"headN"
: Specifies the format or returned indices. See herebelow the description ofind
. ind
When the
needle
is longer than thehaystack
size along the chosen dimensiondimAlong
,ind=[]
is returned.When the
needle
's length matches thehaystack
size along the chosen dimension,By default (
indType==""
):ind
is a row vector containing the indices of matching rows or columns of the haystack. In case of hypermatrix, returned indices of matching ranges are linearized accross all dimensions but thedimAlong
one (see examples).indType="headN":
ind
is the row vector of linear indices in thehaystack
of the heading component of its matching rows, columns, or higher ranges.indType="headIJK":
ind
is a matrix: Each row returns the[i j ..]
indices in thehaystack
of the heading component of its matching ranges (rows, columns, or higher ranges).ind
has as many rows as there are matching ranges in thehaystack
.
Otherwise (short needle): By default,
ind
is the row vector of linear indices of the components of thehaystack
where matching ranges start. Using theindType="headN"
option does nothing more. UsingindType="headIJK"
returnsind
as a matrix of[i j k ..]
indices, as described hereabove.
Returned indices are sorted in increasing order. matching
When a joker is used, this
matching
optional output is a matrix of haystack's data type returning the actual matching ranges: The matching range number #i is returned in the rowmatching(i,:)
.When thehaystack
is sparseencoded, thematching
matrix is sparse as well.
Description
vectorfind()
looks for a given series of values (needle) in a
haystack array, along a given right direction/dimension: width (rows), height (columns),
thickness (like RGB pixels), etc. The needle may be as long or shorter than the size
of the probed side of the haystack.
A special value socalled joker may be specified. Then this value works as a wildcard where it occurs in the needle vector. Since this value is no longer selective  ANY value from the haystack matches at its position , it can't simultaneously be used in the needle as a selective one. In practical, any value not present in the haystack makes necessarily a good joker. However, this condition is not mandatory.
Consequence: When the haystack is boolean, the joker  and so the needle vector as well  must be numerical. Indeed, it would be otherwise impossible to choose a joker value out of the {%T, %F} limited set of values.
When such a wildcard is used, actual values in matching ranges are not fixed. It is
then possible to retrieve them thanks to the
matching
optional output. Otherwise, matching
is empty (it is a trivial repetition of the needle vector).
Search in hypermatrices
Using vectorfind()
with an hypermatrix haystack deserves some
special attention:
About the direction value
dimAlong
:For instance, we can then probe the haystack array in "thickness", i.e. accross its successive layers
haystack(:,:,#,..)
. To do so, we will here specifydimAlong = 3
.Like for matrices, this kind of highdimension array can be scanned along its rows or columns. The corresponding
dimAlong
values have there some exceptions: Searching the needle as rows
is scanning the array
accross its columns. Therefore,
the
dimAlong = "r"
value should be equivalent todimAlong = 2
instead of 1!  In the same way, searching the needle
as columns is scanning the array
accross its rows: The usual
value
dimAlong = "c"
should be equivalent todimAlong = 1
instead of 2!
In order to not quit the common convention
"r"<=>1
and"c"<=>2
used everywhere in Scilab,vectorfind()
keeps and copes with it. But one should keep in mind the underlying switch, to have a clear understanding of the returned default indices when"r",1
or"c",2
are used. Searching the needle as rows
is scanning the array
accross its columns. Therefore,
the
About returned indices of matching rows, columns, "pixels"... when the needle is as long as the haystack side size and no
indType
option is used:Indices of matching ranges are then linear indices of components of the following subspaces:
 With
dimAlong = "r" = 1
: inhaystack(:,1,:,:..)
 With
dimAlong = "c" = 2
: inhaystack(1,:,:,:..)
 With
dimAlong = 3
: inhaystack(:,:,1,:..)
 With
dimAlong = 4
: inhaystack(:,:,:,1,:..)
.  etc...
indType = "headN"  "headIJK
will then return more workable indices refering to the wholehaystack
array. With
Examples
In a matrix of numbers:
m = [ 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 %nan 2 1 2 2 %nan 1 0 1 2 ]; vectorfind(m,[2 0 1 1], "c") // => 5 vectorfind(m,[2 0 1 1], "c",,"headN") // => 17 vectorfind(m,[2 0 1 1], "c",,"headIJK") // [1 5] // With a short needle: vectorfind(m,[2 2]) // => [2 13] vectorfind(m,[2 2], "r",,"headN") // same output vectorfind(m,[2 2], "r",,"headIJK") // => [2 1 ; 1 4] vectorfind(m,[2 %nan]) // => [4 7] // With a wildcard in the needle: // ex #1: All columns starting with 1 and ending with 2: [n, ma] = vectorfind(m,[1 .3 .3 2], "c", .3) // => n = [1 6], ma = [1 2 0 2; 1 2 2 2] // ex #2: All rows having a [2 * 2] range (wildcarded short needle): [n, ma] = vectorfind(m,[2 .3 2], "r", .3) // => n = [7 15], ma = [2 %nan 2; 2 1 2] vectorfind(m,[2 .3 2], "r", .3, "headIJK") // => [3 2 ; 3 4] // Note: The %nan is matched by *
In a boolean matrix:
m = [0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1]==1 // m = // F F F T T F // F T T T F T // T T F T T T // T F T F F T vectorfind(m, [%F %T %T %F], "c") // => 2 vectorfind(m, [%T %T], "c") // => [3 6 13 14 22 23] vectorfind(m, [1 1], "c") // => error: same type expected // Joker => the needle is numerical: [n, ma] = vectorfind(m, [0 %nan 0 %nan 1], "r", %nan) // => n=[1 8], ma=[F F F T T ; F T F F T]
In a tiny 8color RGB image (3D hypermatrix of uint8 integers):
// Generating the array of color brightnesses: m = [1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0]; m = uint8(matrix(m,3,5,3)*255) // m = //(:,:,1) // RED layer // 255 255 255 255 255 // 255 255 0 0 0 // 255 255 0 255 0 //(:,:,2) // GREEN layer // 0 255 0 0 0 // 0 255 0 255 0 // 255 255 0 0 255 //(:,:,3) // BLUE layer // 255 0 255 0 0 // 255 255 255 255 255 // 255 0 0 255 0 // Locates red pixels: vectorfind(m, [255 0 0], 3) // => [10 13] vectorfind(m, [255 0 0], 3,,"headIJK") // => [1 4 1 ; 1 5 1] // Pixels with Green & Blue ON, whatever is their Red channel: // We may use a decimalencoded needle (not a uint8). // Then, %nan is a possible joker, that can't be in the uint8 image: vectorfind(m, [%nan 255 255], 3, %nan,"headIJK") // => [3 1 1; 2 2 1; 2 4 1] // Columns of 255: vectorfind(m, [255 255 255], "c") // => [1 2 7 11]
In a 4D hypermatrix of text:
m = [ "U" "C" "G" "A" "A" "A" "U" "U" "A" "G" "A" "G" "A" "A" "A" "A" "C" "C" "U" "U" "C" "G" "G" "G" "A" "G" "A" "C" "G" "C" "C" "C" "G" "C" "A" "G" "C" "U" "G" "G" "G" "A" "A" "G" "C" "C" "C" "C" "C" "G" "G" "A" "A" "G" "U" "C" "A" "U" "G" "C" ]; m = matrix(m, 3, 5, 2, 2); // (:,:,1,1) // !U C A G A ! // !A C G G G ! // !A C U A G ! //(:,:,2,1) // !A G C A C ! // !A A G A A ! // !C A G C G ! //(:,:,1,2) // !U A U C G ! // !U U C A C ! // !C U G C A ! //(:,:,2,2) // !G C G G G ! // !G U A G C ! // !C A C G C ! vectorfind(m, ["A" "A" "C"], "c") // => [6 9] vectorfind(m, ["" "G" "G"], "c", "") // => [5 8 19] // Joker [n, ma] = vectorfind(m, ["" "G" "G"], "c", "", "headN") // => n=[13 22 55], ma=[A G G; C G G; G G G] vectorfind(m, ["" "C" "C"], "c", "", "headIJK") // => [1 2 1 1 ; 1 5 2 2] // Short needle vectorfind(m, ["C" "C"], "c",,"headIJK") // => [1 2 1 1; 2 2 1 1; 2 5 2 2] // Short needle with joker vectorfind(m, ["A" "" "A"],"r","","headIJK") // => [1 3 1 1 ; 2 2 2 1]
See also
History
Version  Description 
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