# assert_checkalmostequal

Check that computed and expected are numerically close.

### Syntax

flag = assert_checkalmostequal ( computed , expected ) flag = assert_checkalmostequal ( computed , expected , reltol ) flag = assert_checkalmostequal ( computed , expected , reltol , abstol ) flag = assert_checkalmostequal ( computed , expected , reltol , abstol , comptype ) [flag,errmsg] = assert_checkalmostequal ( ... )

### Parameters

- computed:
matrix or hypermatrix or sparse matrix of decimal real or complex numbers; or matrix or hypermatrix of polynomials with real or complex coefficients: the computed result.

- expected :
matrix or hypermatrix or sparse matrix of decimal real or complex numbers; or matrix or hypermatrix of polynomials with real or complex coefficients: the expected result.

If

`computed`

are polynomials,`expected`

must be polynomials as well.- reltol :
real number: the relative tolerance (default reltol=sqrt(%eps)).

- abstol :
real number: the absolute tolerance (default abstol=0).

- comptype :
keyword

`"matrix"`

or`"element"`

(default`"element"`

). The comparison type.- flag :
`%t`

if computed is close to expected; else`%f`

.- errmsg :
Unique string: the error message. If flag==%t, then errormsg=="". If flag==%f, then errmsg contains the error message.

### Description

Performs silently if the two arrays of doubles or complex doubles, or the two arrays of real or complex polynomials computed and expected are close. The variables computed and expected can be exchanged without changing the result.

In case of polynomials, the size of both arrays, the degrees, and finally the matrices of their coefficients are compared within the given or default tolerances.

Any optional input argument equal to the empty matrix is replaced by its default value.

We use the following algorithm. We compare first the real parts. In case of equality, we compare the imaginary parts.

The condition used is mixed relative and absolute:

( |e-c| <= reltol * max(|e|,|c|) + abstol )

The default value comptype="matrix" option performs the comparison for the matrices as a whole, the norm of the difference of the matrices is used. The comptype="element" option performs the comparison elementwise, i.e. all the elements of the matrices must be almost equal. Choosing between these two comparison types must be done with care. For example, if we are checking the elementwise output of an elementary function, we should choose the "element" comparison type, since we must compare the matrix elements one after the other.

If the IEEE values %inf, -%inf or %nan values are in the matrices, then they are almost equal only if the IEEE values are at the same indices in the matrices.

The default comparison is based on a relative error, ensuring that 8 digits are common. This allows to assert the number of significant digits in the computed result.

This procedure only works when the computed and expected variables are matrices of doubles. It will generate an error in any other case.

If the comparison shows that computed is not almost equal to expected,

if the errmsg output variable is not used, an error is generated,

if the errmsg output variable is used, no error is generated.

In the process of comparing the values, we separate %nan, +%inf, -%inf and remaining values. Comparing nan values between them is not possible. This is why we compare the indices where %nan value occurs. If we form differences of infinity values, we produce %nan values. This is why we compare the indices where +%inf values occurs. We do the same for -%inf values. Then, the non-nan, non-infinity values are actually compared.

The default comptype="element" option performs the comparison elementwise, i.e. all the elements of the matrices must be almost equal. The comptype="matrix" option performs the comparison for the matrices as a whole, the norm of the difference of the matrices is used.

In general, the relative tolerance should be set to a multiple of the machine precision %eps. The relative tolerance should also be chosen with the lowest possible magnitude, that is, we should configure the tolerance as accurately as possible. During the process of configuring the relative tolerance, we suggest to use the following values, in that order : 0 (all digits correct), %eps, 10*%eps, 100*%eps, 1.e3*%eps, 1.e4*%eps, ..., 1.e17*%eps (no digit correct). See below for examples of this.

This function takes into account for complex numbers. We first compare the real parts of the input arguments. If this fails, we immediately return. If this succeeds, we compare the imaginary parts of the input arguments.

### Examples

// Comparisons which are successful. // Relative error : assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 , 1 ); assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 , 1 , %eps ); assert_checkalmostequal ( ones(10,1) , ones(10,1) , %eps ); // Absolute error : assert_checkalmostequal ( 1.23456789123456789e-30 , 0 , 0 , 1.e-10 ); assert_checkalmostequal ( [1 %nan], [1 %nan] , 0 , %eps ); // Comparisons which are failures. // Error message produced : assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 , 2 , %eps ); // Error message produced : flag = assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 , 2 , %eps ) // No error message produced : [flag,errmsg] = assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 , 2 , %eps ) assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 , [2 3] , %eps ); assert_checkalmostequal ( [%nan 1], [1 %nan] , %eps ); assert_checkalmostequal ( 1 + 5 * %eps , 1 , %eps ); assert_checkalmostequal ( 1.23456789123456789e-30 , 1.3e-30 , %eps ); // In the case where expected is nonzero, the // tolerance for relative error should be a // multiple of %eps. // The following test is a success and shows // that less than 11 digits are lost with respect // to the maximum possible accuracy. assert_checkalmostequal ( 1.23456 , 1.23457 , 1.e11*%eps ); // We cannot exchange the relative and absolute tolerances. // The following test pass: we use an absolute tolerance // because the expected value is zero. assert_checkalmostequal ( 1.23456789e-30 , 0 , 0 , 1.e-10 ); // The following test fail: we use a relative tolerance. assert_checkalmostequal ( 0 , 1.23456789e-30 , 1.e-10 ); // We must configure the tolerance as tightly as possible. // The following test fails, because the tolerance is too small // with respect to the given numbers. assert_checkalmostequal ( 1.23456 , 1.23457 , %eps ); // In order to get the number of common digits: assert_computedigits(1.23456 , 1.23457) // which returns 5.09... // We now make a judgment on the accuracy and conclude it is acceptable: assert_checkalmostequal ( 1.23456 , 1.23457 , 1.e-5 ); // We give here a practical example of the use of assert_checkalmostequal. // We solve an averagely ill-conditioned system of linear // equations, based on the Hilbert matrix. n = 6; // The expected value is set by ourselves. expected = ones(n,1); A = testmatrix("hilb",n); // We compute the condition number of the matrix : ~10^8 ceil(log10(cond(A))) // This means that the number of digits lost, // predicted by theory, is 8. // The right-hand side is computed given A and expected. b = A * expected; // In this case, a Gauss algorithm with partial // pivoting is used. computed = A\b; // The following test fails: we have lost some digits. assert_checkalmostequal(computed,expected,%eps) // We compute the actual number of common digits: from 10 to 12 assert_computedigits(computed, expected) // We accept this computation. // The following test pass. assert_checkalmostequal(computed,expected,1.e5*%eps); // The following examples show the difference between comptype="element" and "matrix". // The following test does not pass. assert_checkalmostequal ( [1 1.e5] , [2 1.e5] , 1.e-3 ) // The following test pass with the matrix-based comparison. assert_checkalmostequal ( [1 1.e5] , [2 1.e5] , 1.e-3 , [] , "matrix" ) // The following test pass. // It is non-trivial to take into account for IEEE values. [flag,errmsg] = assert_checkalmostequal ( [1.2345 %inf -%inf %nan] , [1.2346 %inf -%inf %nan] , 1.e-4 ) // This function takes into account for complex numbers. // The following test pass. assert_checkalmostequal ( 1+%i , 1+(1+1.e-4)*%i , 1.e-3 , [], "element" ); // The following test fails. assert_checkalmostequal ( 1+%i , 1+(1+1.e-4)*%i , 1.e-5 , [], "element" );

### History

Version | Description |

5.4.0 | Function introduced. |

6.0.1 | Extension to polynomials. |

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