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x = roots(p)
x = roots(p, 'e')



実数または複素数の係数を持つ多項式 または 降順の多項式係数のベクトル.

'e', algo

a character: the algorithm to be used (default "f", for "fast").

"f": The Jenkins-Traub method is used. The polynomial must be real and of degree < 100; otherwise, an error is yielded.
"e": eigenvalues of the companion matrix are returned.


x=roots(p) は 多項式pxである 複素ベクトルを返す. 100次以下の実数多項式の場合,高速な(Jenkins-Traub法に基づく) RPOLYアルゴリズムが使用される. その他の場合, その根はコンパニオン行列の固有値として計算される. どのような場合でもこのアルゴリズムを強制的に使用したい 場合,x=roots(p,'e')を使用されたい.

In the following examples, we compute roots of polynomials.

// Roots given a real polynomial
p = poly([1 2 3],"x")
// Roots, given the real coefficients
p = [3 2 1];
// The roots of a complex polynomial
p = poly([0,10,1+%i,1-%i],'x');
// The roots of the polynomial of a matrix
A = rand(3,3);
p = poly(A,'x')

The polynomial representation can have a significant impact on the roots. In the following example, suggested by Wilkinson in the 60s and presented by Moler, we consider a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries equal to 1, 2, ..., 20. The eigenvalues are obviously equal to 1, 2, ..., 20. If we compute the associated characteristic polynomial and compute its roots, we can see that the eigenvalues are significantly different from the expected ones. This implies that just representing the coefficients as IEEE doubles changes the roots.

A = diag(1:20);
p = poly(A,'x')

The "f" option produces an error if the polynomial is complex or if the degree is greater than 100.

// The following case produces an error.
p = %i+%s;
// The following case produces an error.
p = ones(101,1);

The following script is a simple way of checking that the companion matrix gives the same result as the "e" option. It explicitly uses the companion matrix to compute the roots. There is a small step to reverse the coefficients of the polynomial ; indeed, "roots" expects the coefficients in decreasing degree order, while "poly" expects the coefficients in increasing degree order.

v= [1.12119799 0 3.512D+13 32 3.275D+27 0 1.117D+41 4.952D+27 1.722D+54 0 1.224D+67 0 3.262D+79 ];
r1 = roots(v,"e"); // With "e" option
dv = size(v,"*");
p = poly(v(dv:-1:1),"x","coeff"); // Reversing v's coefficients
A = companion(p);
r2 = spec(A); // With the companion matrix


RPOLYアルゴリズムは以下の文献に記述されている. "Algorithm 493: Zeros of a Real Polynomial", ACM TOMS Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 1975), pp. 178-189

Jenkins, M. A. and Traub, J. F. (1970), A Three-Stage Algorithm for Real Polynomials Using Quadratic Iteration, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 7(1970), 545-566.

Jenkins, M. A. and Traub, J. F. (1970), Principles for Testing Polynomial Zerofinding Programs. ACM TOMS 1, 1 (March 1975), pp. 26-34

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